Hugo - On layouts and content organization

Layouts in Hugo allow you to define the how the posts in the content directory would be displayed. In addition to defining layouts for the content posts, you can define the layout for the home page, define partials and include it in different layout templates, also define the default layout to be used in case the matching content type layout is not found.

The directory structure followed in Layouts imitates the directory structure of the content directory:

--layouts
  --_default
    --single.html
    --summary.html

  --pages
    --single.html
    --summary.html

  --partials
    --header.html
    --aside.html
  --index.html

The site's home page is defined in layout's index.html file. If you're building a blog, this page would list the recent posts. Hugo provides several Site level variables that you use it in this template file:


Notice that several template variables are used to create the home page. The one that will display recent posts is mentioned inside the body tag of the template:

{{ range .Data.Pages }}
  {{ if or (eq .Type "posts") (eq .Type "posts-series") }}
    <h3>
       <a href={{ .Permalink }}>{{ .Title }}</a>
     </h3>
     {{ .Render "summary" }}
  {{ end }}
{{ end }}

The range operator is used to iterate over an array; here the template variable .Data.Pages contain all the posts listed in the content directory. Inside the range loop, a condition is specified to see if the page if of a particular Type. The Type information is determined by the location of the post in the content directory. If the post is defined in the 'posts' directory then the type would be 'posts', similarly, if you have top level pages defined in 'pages' directory, then the type would be 'pages'. Alternatively, you can override the default Type by mentioning 'type' field in the front matter of the post(see the content organisation section below).

When listing posts, you would want to list only the summary information instead of the entire content of the post. The template {{ .Render "summary" }} is used when you have a separate template - summary.html defined to display the summary information. This template could display additional information such as published date, tags etc. If you would like to display only the summary without including any additional template then use the template variable {{ .Summary }}. Hugo will pick up the first 70 words from the content and display it as the summary of the post. Alternatively, you can insert a jump break by including <!--more-->  tag. Hugo will pick up all the content before this tag and display it as the summary of the post.

Let's take a look at summary.html defined in _default directory:

Published date: {{ .Date.Format "2 Jan, 2006" }}
{{ .Summary }}
{{ if .Truncated }}
  <a href="{{ .Permalink }}">Read more >> </a>
{{ end}}


Here we are using the template variable {{ .Summary }} to display the summary of the post. Also, we are displaying the published date and providing a link to the post if the content is truncated. The flag Truncated would be true if there are more than 70 words in the post or a <!--more--> tag is inserted. Any template defined in 'layouts/_default' will be used as a default template to render the content. You can always define a different layout by creating a directory with its name matching the directory name in the content directory.

On content organisation:

Hugo organises the generated content in the same way as it's defined. However, you can override it by updating some of the fields in the front matter of the post. You can specify additional fields - 'slug', 'type', 'path' and 'url' to override the default.

For example, if you have written a couple of posts at 'posts/blog-post-1.md' and 'posts/blog-post-2.md', Hugo will generate the content in public directory at  'posts/blog-post-1/index.html' and 'posts/blog-post-2/index.html'. If you would like to rename 'blog-post-1' and 'blog-post-2' to something else specify the 'slug' field in the front matter:

+++
date = "2016-12-05T20:08:38+05:30"
draft = true
title = "blog post 2"
slug = "first-post"

+++

This post now can be accessed at '<site>/posts/first-post'.

You can also specify the 'url' field in the front matter and this will render the page at the given 'url'. For example, if you have top level pages defined under pages directory - 'pages/about-us' and 'pages/contact-us' and want to render them at the top level i.e. at '/about-us' and '/contact-us':

+++
date = "2016-12-05T20:08:38+05:30"
draft = true
title = "about us"
url = "/about-us"

+++

If both slug and url are specified then, url would take precedence. The url field in the front matter would take precedence over any other field.

As mentioned earlier, you can specify the type field in the front matter to override the default type assigned to the post. Consider you are writing a series of post on a particular topic and you have created a directory 'series-topic' under 'posts'. Here you can add the field 'type' in the front matter and provide a value say 'posts-series'. Using this type information you can easily get to the set of posts and display content as necessary.

Example source code can be found here - https://github.com/sagar-ganatra/hugo_example

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