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Module Pattern in JavaScript

Couple of days back I wrote about the Constructor Pattern in JavaScript wherein I explained how classes can be simulated using functions in JavaScript. Also, on how the prototype property can be used to extend another class. The other important element in any of the Object-Oriented programming language is the concept of encapsulation i.e. providing private members that can be accessed only by the members of the same class. I came across the Module Pattern today and found that it is quite easy to achieve encapsulation in JavaScript. Though the variables in JavaScript can't be declared as private or public, but closures can be used to emulate encapsulation.

The var scoped variables defined inside a function are visible throughout the body of the function and will die once the function has completed its execution. This means that the var scoped variables can't be accessed outside the function and hence can be considered as 'private' variables of a class. This is exactly what we want from a JavaScript class, but there should be a way to access or update these members through a public interface. The member functions or variables can be made public by returning an object from that function. Here's is a simple module:

twitter = (function() { var twitterStatus = []; var currentIndex = 0; var getPreviousElement = function() { if(currentIndex != 0) return twitterStatus[--currentIndex]; else return twitterStatus[0]; } var getNextElement = function() { if(currentIndex != twitterStatus.length-1) return twitterStatus[++currentIndex]; else return twitterStatus[currentIndex]; } var pushMessage = function(message) { twitterStatus.push(message); } return { pushMessage: pushMessage, getPreviousElement: getPreviousElement, getNextElement: getNextElement } })();

There are quite a few things happening here. Firstly, I'm defining a self invoking function which is then assigned to a variable 'twitter'. When the function is invoked the various member variables and functions are defined and the function returns with an object containing references to these member functions. Now the variable 'twitter' can be used to invoke various functions (public methods). These functions are nothing but closures and will have read\write access to the private members (var scoped variables) of the function:

twitter.pushMessage("Message 1"); twitter.pushMessage("Message 2"); twitter.getPreviousElement(); twitter.getNextElement();

In this way it is more easier to organize the code in a particular namespace and not worry about other library functions present in the global namespace.


  1. I highly recommend looking into Asynchronous Module Definitions (AMD) as a fully-developed JavaScript module build method:

  2. I have started to look at various design patterns in JavaScript. I'll definitely look into AMD. Thanks for sharing it.

  3. That is actually the revealing module pattern.


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